Showing posts with label Scripture. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Scripture. Show all posts

Friday, July 27, 2018

In What Year Did Herod Die?

Luke was right after all.
by Ruggero Sangalli
One of the frequently quoted historical reference points for chronologicalizing the events reported in the Gospel concerns the year of the death of King Herod the Great: the year 4 BC, at least according to many authors.
Herod the Great
Herod the Great
This year we owe to the writings of Flavius ​​Josephus, who, however, never expressly names them. It is derived from the reigns of Archelaus, Philippos and Antipas, the heirs of Herod. But Flavius ​​Josephus himself provides at least a dozen clues that contradict and render the year useless as Herod's year of death. For example, it was not uncommon to reckon with the successor's reigning years as well as the time when the office was held, but the old king was still alive.
Amazingly, many writers today write that "Herod certainly died in the year 4 BC." They do so with such confidence in Flavius ​​Josephus that they simply ignore many other of his statements, which are much more precise. Flavius ​​Josephus wrote that Herod died at the age of seventy. Similarly, at the age of just 15, Herod was appointed by his father Antipater to be the administrator of Galilee, after he had come to power from Pompey, after the Romans conquered Jerusalem in 63 BC.
We also know that at the time of the Battle of Actium, in September 31 BC, Herod was in the seventh year of his kingship. According to Jewish Antiquities, his reign lasted 37 years, 30 to 31 years after the Battle of Actium. We know that Herod, in the eighteenth year of his reign, after the visit of Emperor Augustus to Syria, for which the Roman historians handed down to us the year 19 BC, resolved to rebuild the temple (the 15th year of his reign, according to the records) in the History of the Jewish War , in which Herod's reign is given as 34 years). In short, in the year 4 BC, Herod was still alive.

Astronomy gives justice to the Evangelist Luke

Astronomy is also in this case an effective tool for determining the timing of historical events. It provides both Flavius ​​Josephus as a historian, and Luke as an evangelist justice, but to the detriment of many modern authors. Flavius ​​Josephus wrote that Herod died about two weeks after a spectacular lunar eclipse and that his funeral took place before the subsequent Jewish Passover. The records of NASA allow us to calculate the exact date of the lunar eclipses of that time and eliminate those that were invisible in Palestine.
Those who insist that Herod died in the year 4 BC look at the darkness of March 13 (according to the Julian calendar) of that year. At that time the 14th Nisan fell on the 12th of April, so 29 days later. After all, however, what Flavius ​​Josephus reports for that period, the time span is too short to be that date. An often overlooked detail: the 13th of March would have been the 14th Adar, a feast day (Purim) associated with the 13th Adar, the day of Nicanor, a feast day since the times of the Maccabees.
Flavius ​​Josephus testifies that just a few days before, two rabbis had instigated an anti-Roman uprising, destroying the gilded eagle that Herod had placed on the outside of the Jerusalem temple. For security reasons, Herodes preferred to bring the two rabbis outside Jericho to Jerusalem, where he was in the spa to heal his physical ailments. He had them burned alive on the very day of darkness ( Jewish Antiquities , chapter XXVII).
Flavius ​​Josephus, The Jewish War
Considering the great respect of the Jews for holy days, which Herod always kept disparaging, but no court could have been found, not even an unlawful one, to pass a verdict on a religious feast (Est 9,17--18), let alone against two well-known rabbis. The entire population would have been scandalized about it. However, Flavius ​​Josephus reported that it was not just any court, but the Highest Court of the Jews, the right-wingers par excellence. He also recalled that Archelaos (co-regent of Antipas and Philippos since the year 4 BC), because of the persistent criticism of the judgment, expressly justified that it was done "in accordance with the law." Even with Jesus, the "law" endeavored to accelerate his execution so that no feast day would be profaned.
The 14th Adar may not have been the date of the lunar eclipse and therefore it is not the year 4 BC that interests us. Herod, an Idumaean, would not have had two rabbis burned on a day when Haman was burned according to the ancient tradition of the Purim festival.
If there are any doubts: Flavius ​​Josephus lists for the period after this "impossible execution" and before the Passover, a series of events that occurred before Herod's death (which occurred about two weeks after the lunar eclipse). However, the dates are incompatible with the few missing days until the 14th Nisan.
So it must have been another lunar eclipse. According to NASA directory, two especially would be in question. The first occurred on the 10th of January of the year 1 before Christ, the second on the 29th of December of the same year. In both cases there would be sufficient time to accommodate all the events that Flavius ​​Josephus mentions between the darkness and the subsequent Passover. A Jewish document, Megillat Taanith, which dates back to the destruction of the temple in the year 70 AD, has been handed down to us. The scrolls contain a list of Jewish festivals. In it are two dates without further information, on which it was forbidden not to celebrate: one is the 7th Kislev, the other of the 2 Shevat.
M. Moise Schwab, through a detailed and intricate study in the 2nd Shevat, pinpointed the death of Herod, exactly two weeks after the lunar eclipse of December 29, the 14th of January of the year 1 AD, according to today's calendar. The lunar eclipse came exactly at dusk, so that everyone could see it. Herod, born 70 BC, ruler since the year 37 BC, was 70 years old, and had ruled 37 years according to the specifications of the Jewish Antiquities. Jesus was born about a year before, at the end of the year 2 BC. Everything fits, at least for those who are willing to take a close look.
Text: Ruggero Sangalli / NBQ
Translation: Giuseppe Nardi
Pictures: Wikicommons
Trans: Tancred

Sunday, January 21, 2018

Remind You of Anyone?

From Titus

There are also many disobedient, vain talkers, and seducers: especially they who are of the circumcision: Who must be reproved, who subvert whole houses, teaching things which they ought not, for filthy lucre's sake. One of them a prophet of their own, said, The Cretians are always liars, evil beasts, slothful bellies. This testimony is true. Wherefore rebuke them sharply, that they may be sound in the faith; Not giving heed to Jewish fables and commandments of men, who turn themselves away from the truth. All things are clean to the clean: but to them that are defiled, and to unbelievers, nothing is clean: but both their mind and their conscience are defiled. They profess that they know God: but in their works they deny him; being abominable, and incredulous, and to every good reprobate.

Saturday, April 16, 2016

Today's Gospel

Now there stood by the cross of Jesus, his mother and his mother's sister, Mary of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalen. 

When Jesus therefore had seen his mother and the disciple standing whom he loved, he saith to his mother: Woman, behold thy son. 

After that, he saith to the disciple: Behold thy mother. And from that hour, the disciple took her to his own.

Sunday, August 11, 2013

Bible top Selling Book in Laicized Norway

(Oslo), Norway is one of the de-Christianized countries in Europe. Amazingly, the Bible has become the best selling book in the land of the fjords, and has been since Autumn of 2011. This is from a tweet from the Vorhofs der Völker [Court of the People], an initiative approved by Pope Benedict XVI. under the Pontifical Council of Culture under the direction of Cardinal Gianfranco Ravasi. The facility specifically seeks dialogue with agnostics and atheists. After a course correction by Benedict XVI. there are actions taking place in many cities.

Even the Washington Times was aware of the Norwegian phenomenon. The Bible was the bestseller in Norway for the entire year of 2012. As a new edition appeared, queues formed in the fall of 2011 at the shops until late into the night, to be able to purchase a copy. Since the phenomenon is holding, 2013 is unaffected. "The Bible in Norway is selling like hot cakes," said the Washington Times . For 54 of the 56 previous weeks, the Scriptures are always among the top 15 best-selling books. Associated Press reported that the Bible is by far the best-selling book in 2012 and both the autobiography of pop stars Justin Bieber and outsells the last year's new publication of the much advertised soft porn trilogy by EL James. An estimated 3.9 billion Bibles have been sold worldwide for the past 50 years.

Thursday, November 1, 2012

A Corrupter of Holy Scripture

Caricature of Luther from the times
of the Protestant Revolt
A Little Late for Reformation Day

(  The stalwart Catholic apologist, Fr. Johann Nikolaus Weislinger (+1755), wrote in his book: "My way or the highway" in 1719:

"What concerns the German Bible, so every Lutheran should now know is that in Germany, German Bibles were had and read before Luther sprang and pitifully seduced and deceived our beloved fatherland with his villainous, prankish and interlaced Bible."

Before Luther there were 14 Complete Editions of the Bible

The historical critic confirmed this harsh criticism.

In 1522 Luther's German translation of the New Testament appeared in Wittenberg.

Before this point in time there were 14 complete High German editions of the Bible available.

Martin Luther the Poser

Of these Luther himself used three, as Protestant G.W. Hopf confirms:

-Augsburg 1477
-Nurnberg 1483
-Augsburg 1518

(Hopf, value of Lutheran Germanification of the Bible, 1847)

At the same time Luther boasted that he "had pulled the Bible from under the bench".

The Swiss Reformer Huldrych Zwingli (+1531) thought that such bragging should have been "flogged out".

Poorly translated

Luthers work showed itself soon to be unusually prone to error.

Already the Elsatian schismatic Martin Butzer (+1551) found a large number of mistakes in Luther's translation.

Other Protestants, like Christian Karl von Bunsen (+1860)   explained that the meaning of the original did not match in a hundred places.

No other was as mistaken about the original text.  It was regarded as the most imprecise of all translations.  Over 3,000 places needed correction.

Luther will be canonized

In 1885 a book appeared in Berlin with the following title:  "God's food and the Lutheran Bible translation -- two fundamentally diverse things."

Protestant yes men set themselves against any alteration out of exaggerated honor for Luther.

So wrote the Protestant preacher Mayer:  "M. Franke, who castigated many errors in Luther's Bible, has not condemned Lutherdom, but the Holy Ghost himself."  (Johann Nikolaus Weislinger, page 331)

Luther Against All

The erroneous teaching of the justification of men through faith in Christ alone led Luther to counterfeits of Holy Scripture and the intentional falsification of the written word of God.

His followers were led to only understand Holy Scripture as he misunderstood it.

"Guard yourself", warned Luther, "against all the teaching which need aught but these words (Law, Sin, Grace, Faith, Justice in the Letters of Paul), be they who they will,  even as if they were the same as Origin, Ambrose, Hironymus, Augustine and still higher."

The Classical Example

Through omissions, distortions, truncations, Luther gave Holy Scripture a Lutheran face, so that the Bible,  at least from the great mass of superficial readers, vouch for him.

In 2 Peter 1: 10 he simply removed for example in the sentence  "Wherefore, brethren, labour the more, that by good works you may make sure your calling and election" the words "good works".

The classical example of Lutheran written falsification is Romans 3:28.

There, St. Paul wrote: For we account a man to be justified by faith, without the works of the law."

Luther arbitrarily shoved the word "alone" out so that it meant: The man will be justified through faith alone without the works of the law."

Why? So that the people believed that Luther taught the same as St. Paul.

Questions Were Answered with Outbreaks of Fury

As he was reprimanded for such a manipulation of Holy Scripture, Luther answered:

"If you Papists [a priest of Nurnberg who broke from Luther] want to make the word "sola" --alone -- useless, quickly tell him therefore:  Doctor Martin Luther wants it that way and say: Papist and asses are one thing;  sic volo sic jubeo, sit pro ratione voluntas." [I want, then I command. Instead of reasoning my will applies!]

What would not be melded into his system, was thrown out, like the letters of James, the Hebrews and the Apocalypse of John.

Lutheran Exegesis

The book of Tobias as denoted as a comedy by Luther.

The wasting of Job was explained with:  "The Devil foisted some syphilis on him".

The book of Ecclesiastes "has neither books nor spurs and goes to stockings". [A play on the expression that you can't go to heaven with your boots and spurs.]

In Sirach 3, 5 a church teacher is introduced as a jokester.

"You Damn Jews"

Especially poor is Luther's talk about Moses as well as Jews in general and the Old Testament:

"Everyone who goes with Moses, must go with the devil, to the gallows with Moses.  The Ten Commandments don't apply to us Christians and the heathens, but the Jews alone."

(Volume 5.  Wittenberger Edition germ. fol. 212)

Or: "Pfui you there, pfui you there and where you are, you damn Jews!  Are you worth nothing that you see the Bible from outside.  Let alone that you read what's inside.

You should only read the bible,  which is under the pig's tail, and the letters fall out the same way, eat and drink. That would be a bible for such prophets."

(Tom. S. Jen. germ. fol. 83 adit. 1558)

The Prophet of Wittenberg handled Holy Scripture and its author so disgracefully.

From the book "Luther, as he lived, loved and died, portrayed according to a irrefutable report.  Polemic writing against the "los von Rom-Pastoren".  Eight, unchanged editions. Graz und Wien 1925.   Publishing House 'Styria'.  Available, here...